I am reading "A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa," by Frederick Courteney Selous. Taking place towards the end of the muzzleloading era, just after our War between the States. I found the following statement about a shot taken on elephant with a 4 bore muzzleloading smoothbore "elephant gun" interesting regarding accuracy and range regarding heavily charged large bore smoothbore guns, "120 yards of the herd. At this moment the old fellow, being nearer than the others, must have caught an indistinct glimpse of me behind the bush; for, with head erect and ears cocked, he now gazed intently at the spot where I crouched concealed. Seeing that it was useless to attempt to get any nearer, I noiselessly raised myself to a kneeling position, and, taking a careful aim at his chest, fired. At the shot he fell on his knees, but, recovering, sprang up and bounded off at full gallop after the retreating herd; but his race was short, for, after rushing along at full speed for about 100 yards, he staggered and fell, and in a few moments the remorseless assegais of my Kafirs had quenched the last sparks of vitality that still remained. On coming up I found that I had made a very creditable shot, considering my weapon (a smooth-bore elephant gun, carrying a four-ounce round bullet, backed by fifteen drachms of coarse powder)." He doesn't further define "very credible shot," but the elephant did drop within 100 yards, and the shot itself was over that. If anyone can do the math, I'd be interested to know how his 4 bore load compares to our common 20 gauge roundball loads which seem to run between 80 to 100 grains of powder.