I began shooting muzzle-loading rifle with a John Shuler which was in the family. I never even heard of a "ball starter/short starter" until years later. The muzzle on this Shuler was in some fashioned enlarged so the approx. ,37 cal ball started easily, The muzzle of my Great-Great Grandfather's rifle looked about the same. Grampa won local matches with this one in the 1890's, never shot shot a breechloader until he was 18. There was a long series on this subject some years ago, believe on the Americanlongrifles forum. Disremember the authors, one may have been Dan Phariss.