Sorry those aren't actually for "angling" but just for fishing, as "angling" back then meant using artificial lures (mostly what we call flies). I chuckle too that I know folks who think I do Tenkara fishing, which is now a very popular form of fly fishing...., when in fact I do 18th century angling. A fly rod with a line to a fly without a reel wasn't unique to Japan. The Treatyse on Fysshynge with an Angle by Dame Juliana Berners was published in 1496.
You could do it either way. As a cast, you only have at the most 50% more length of line than the length of the rod. But the rod tends to be pretty big. Dappling was the other strategy. Unlike modern Tenkara, the leader doesn't really float that well if at all.
When I was a kid I had an old bamboo "pole" I think about 10" long. Well if you tied a 10' line to it and lobbed it out- that's 20" but if you held some of the line in your hand and lobbed it out, letting go at the right moment, now about 25' or more. Given a lot of modern flyrods, etc. are based on a 40" cast the bamboo wasn't all that bad. I used it in lily pads where I could lift the line out of the area without dragging it through all the pads and creating a commotion.